In the new hybrid/electric automobiles, what languages and platforms do they use?
The most popular programming language for automotive ECUs (electronic control unit) that implement hard real-time applications in power train or chassis control is by far C. The software is usually implemented on top of automotive-specific operating systems according to OSEK or AUTOSAR.
In devices dedicated to infotainment you might find other languages or even mainstream operating systems. OBD-II is just a subset of information collected in a typical car because OBD-II is mostly targeting the engine. There are also tons of diagnostic data collected for other applications, e.g. for comfort functions.
CAN is the “classical” popular bus interface but recently standards with more bandwidth (e.g. Flexray) are growing momentum especially for safety-critical software. For some purpose even the classical Ethernet is used.